“Across the Body” is an artwork about the drawing and the disappearing of artwork perceived as an object.
I came from the centre of Italy, close to the northern, and I approached art via our traditional media, drawing, painting and etching. I felt the urgency to question the nature of these media from the Western historical perspective.
In the West, drawing was not considered an autonomous art form for a long time. Several centuries passed until artists realized they did not necessarily have to represent reality. Under the influence of the European avant-garde, American painters developed a gesture paint style inspired by the idea of drawing in the loss of rational control. A critic and an artist, Rosenberg (1952) and Kaprow (1958), wrote relevant articles about gesture painters. They popularize the idea of the artwork as an immaterial event raher than a material object. At the same time, a new art movement arose. They believe that the immaterial idea is more relevant than the material artwork (LeWitt 1967). Two critics, Chandler and Lippard (1968), wrote about the concept of the complete dematerialization of the artwork as a material object. A philosopher, Osborne (2004), sees the dematerialization of the artwork as a pure idea, unachievable.
Gesture painters inspired artistic events beyond the act of painting and the painting as an object. What if these events include the act of painting and the painting as an object?
I decided to avoid painting and chose to draw. Remaining focused on the paramount role of the hand in drawing, I decided to move attention to the body gesture. Playing with the expectations of the viewer, I remove the draw at the end of the drawing action. The event becomes the disappearance of the object.
Some questions remain open. The viewer's perception can find relevant the drawing signs, also if they represent nothing. What happens to the power of representing reality (Moxey 2009) while drawing signs? Involving the viewer in the process of drawing is a way to entangle art and ordinary life. How does the artwork join art, ordinary life and reality altogether?
- Rosenberg H. (1952), The American Action Painters, ARTnews 52, December, New York City, pp. 22-23
- Kaprow A. (1958), The Legacy of Jackson Pollock, Art News vol. 57 no. 6 (October 1958): 24–26; 55–57
- LeWitt S. (1967), Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, Artforum, 5:10 (Summer 1967), pp. 79–84
- Chandler J., Lippard, L. (1968), The Dematerialization of Art, Art international, 12:2 (February 1968)
- Osborne, P. (2004), Art Beyond Aesthetics Philosophical Criticism, Art History and Contemporary Art, Art History, 27: 651-670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0141-6790.2004.00442.x
- Moxey K. (2009), Mimesis and Iconoclasm, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8365.2008.00648.x, ART HISTORY . ISSN 0141–6790 . VOL 32 NO 1 . FEBRUARY 2009 pp 52-77
“Across the Body” is an artwork about the drawing and the disappearing of artwork perceived as an object.
I came from the centre of Italy, close to the northern, and I approached art via our traditional media, drawing, painting and etching, focusing on the body. Despite the media, my approach as a visual artist was modern but narrow. I felt the urgency to question the nature of these media from the Western historical perspective.
From the Western historical perspective, drawing plays a peculiar role. The history of art in Western culture tells us that, for a long time, the drawing appears not an autonomous art form. Plus, in the same cultural context, the draftsperson was intended as a person skilled at mirroring reality. In the West, drawing became an autonomous art form at the end of the 14th century. Then, in the 20th century, artists realized that they did not necessarily have to represent reality.
Artists develop the idea of drawing without thinking
In Europe, during the 20s of the 20th century, arose an art movement called by artists Surrealism. Inside this movement, artists embraced a method called as automatic drawing. The concept of 'automatism' implies the loss of rational control. In the field of automatic drawing, a prominent artist was André Masson.
The idea of drawing without thinking influences painters' gestures
In America, during the 40s and 50s of the 20th century, arose an art style identified by critics as Abstract Expressionism. Inside this style, critics describe a class of artists as gesture painters. These artists gave careful attention and put force into the artist's hand gestures. The particular importance of the gesture comes after the Surrealist 'automatism' that unleashes the irrational movement of the hand.
Painters working with gestures bring the idea of artwork as an event
In 1952, the critic Harold Rosenberg described these artists as action painters. The canvas was a space to act where an event happened, not a picture. In the category of action painters, a prominent artist was Jackson Pollock. In 1958, the artist Allan Kaprow published an article (written in 1956) about Pollock. Kaprow popularized a form of art that he called happening. In his article, you can find some roots in the idea of happening in the way he describes Pollock's legacy.
Kaprow first described the peculiarity of Pollock's gesture which he called the diaristic gesture. He wrote that the act of painting, the hand gesture, became even more relevant in the last seventy-five years, and all these lines and traces assumed their own identity without representing any object. These hand gestures follow a framework, mostly consciously, of rules related to aesthetic values. In Pollock, it is different since he gives an "almost absolute value", as Kaprow wrote, to the gesture that comes from the Surrealistic idea of automatism. Kaprow stress "almost absolute" because he knows that Pollock has the attitude to stop and think carefully about action, understanding the difference between "a good gesture and a bad one". However, Pollock seems to bring the surrealist idea of automatism beyond the painting itself in the way of the "ritual", as Kaprow wrote. Again, according to Kaprow, Pollock goes beyond the idea of painting cause of the size of his paintings, creating "environments". Soon, it appears reasonable that Kaprow thinks that Pollock's legacy brings "materials" for new art that can overcome painting itself in the form of "happenings" and "events".
An event has no material form
A happening, by definition, is an "(...) antinarrative theatrical pieces (...) staged in studios, galleries, and offbeat locations, usually with direct audience involvement". The word happening was used for the first time in artwork by Kaprow in 1959, for 18 Happenings in 6 Parts. According to several scholars, happenings were paramount models in the development of performance art. A performance, by definition, is an "event that could include a diverse range of actions, movements, gestures, and choreography". Since performance is an event, the artwork, as an object, disappears. The work is the action itself, and due to its loss of the material form, performance finds similarities in conceptual art.
An idea has no material form
In 1967, the artist Sol LeWitt published an article about his frame of reference on conceptual art.
LeWitt uses the terms 'concept' and 'idea' interchangeably, assuming that the idea is the more important quality of the artwork. By definition, 'expressionism' refers to "stylistic approaches that emphasize intense personal expression". That's what LeWitt tries to avoid with his approach. The expectations set by the expressionist attitude in the audience are the obstacle to perceiving the conceptual art. He talks about "the expectation of an emotional kick". It means that, under the correct perspective, conceptual art should not appear boring to the audience. Moreover, LeWitt explains that conceptual art is not in every case developed by logic, and ideas come after intuition. Likewise, the artwork is not an illustration of a system of beliefs. The work itself implies the system of beliefs. Conceptual art avoids sensual perception and emotions aiming to involve the spectator's mind.
The artwork loses the material form
In 1968, the critic Lucy Lippard with John Chandler published an article (written in 1967) about the dematerialization of art. They state that in the last twenty years, the process of making art was based on emotions and intuition, "anti-intellectual", then a way based on thinking, "ultra-conceptual", took place. This new development brings a "dematerialization" of the art object that soon could become obsolescent. Then, according to the authors, this dematerialization in visual arts opens two ways, "art as idea" and "art as action". To stress the different approaches they wrote about "artist as thinker" and "artist as maker". However, they state that using artwork to express ideas was a popular way in the past, “only in the late nineteenth century” arose this way of thinking about art as something related only to sensual perception.
You cannot lose the material form in an artwork
In 2004, the philosopher Peter Osborne released an article titled "Art beyond aesthetics", which will expand in a book published in 2013. According to Osborne, "All art requires some form of materialization" A kind of conceptual art pointed to the dematerialization of the object of art. However, the complete dematerialization of the artwork is unreachable. A "form of materialization" is inevitable. Likewise, to materialize a thing is not a sufficient condition to create a work. You inevitably need concepts to make art.
The event becomes the disappearance of the object itself
Gesture painters inspired artistic events beyond the act of painting and the painting as an object. What if these events include the act of painting and the painting as an object?
There is an obstacle: the viewer's perception. This kind of event likely appears trivial. There are not trivial by themselves. They could seem trivial due to historical reasons. So, I decided to avoid painting and chose to draw.
To draw is generally conceived as a hand gesture. However, the hand gesture could be related to the whole body movement. So, remaining focused on the paramount role of the hand, I, anyway, decided to move attention to the body gesture.
The drawing process aims to realize an object called a draw. The viewer can enjoy the process of drawing. Then the expectation is to look at the draw or to buy it, as it becomes a commodity. So, I play with these expectations removing the draw at the end of the drawing action.
The event becomes the disappearance of the object itself.
Lastly, it remains two open questions.
Two open questions
The viewer's perception can find relevant the drawing signs, also if they represent nothing. However, artists tried for centuries to catch the reality. A draw that represents something has power. Moxey calls it "presentational power", the power to "create an entirely new experience". This experience is a replacement for the authentic object.
What happens to the power of representing reality while drawing signs?
Involving the viewer in the process of drawing is a way to entangle art and ordinary life. But the power of representing reality links art with reality.
How does the artwork join art, ordinary life and reality altogether?
- "The bond between drawing and other art forms is of course very close, because the preliminary sketch was for a long time the chief purpose of the drawing. A state of mutual dependence exists in particular between painting and drawing, above all, in the case of sketches and studies for the composition of a picture (...) Still closer, perhaps, is the bond between drawing and engraving, which works with the same artistic means, with monochrome linearity as its main formal element and with various tone and plane methods closely related to those of drawing" in Hutter, H. R. (1998). drawing. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/art/drawing-art back to the text
- "Not until the late 14th century, however, did drawing come into its own—no longer necessarily subordinate, conceptually or materially, to another art form" in Hutter, H. R. (1998) op. cit. back to the text
- "(...) has been the vehicle of a representational more or less illusionist rendition of objects. Only in very recent times has the line been conceived of as an autonomous element of form, independent of an object to be represented" in Hutter, H. R. (1998) op. cit. back to the text
- "In the West, the history of drawing as an independent artistic document began toward the end of the 14th century" in Hutter, H. R. (1998) op. cit. back to the text
- "drawing is represented in the work of practically all 20th-century artists (...) As the other arts have become nonrepresentational, thus attaining autonomy and formal independence in relation to external reality, drawing is more than ever considered an autonomous work of art, independent of the other arts. (...) in laying the groundwork for a new evaluation of the nonrepresentational line" in Hutter, H. R. (1998) op. cit. back to the text
- The term 'surrealism' appeared first in 1917 in the context of a review by Guillaume Apollinaire: "Parade ue sorte de sur-réalisme où je vois le point de départ d'une série de manifestations de cet Esprit Noveau qui, trouvant aujourd'hui l'occasione de se montrer, ne manquera pas de séduire l'élite er se promet de modifier de fonde en comble, dans l'allegrésse universelle, les arts et les mœurs, car le bon sens veut qu'ills soient au moins à la hauteur des progrès scientifiques et industriels" in Apollinaire G. (1917), «Parade» et l'Esprit Nouveau, Excelsior, 11 Mai, Paris, p.5. Then the term was first used by artists in 1924 in the first Manifesto of Surrealism by André Breton. See Breton A. (1924), MANIFESTE DU SURRÉALISME, Poisson Soluble, Editions du Sagittaire, Paris. back to the text
- The term 'automatic drawing' appears in 1913's book of Austin Osman Spare. See Osman Spare A. (1913), The Book of Pleasure (Self-Love). The Psychology of Ecstasy, Co-operative Printing Society: London, "Automatic drawing as means to art", p.55 back to the text
- "in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern" in Breton, A. (1969). Manifestoes of Surrealism. United States: University of Michigan Press, p.26 back to the text
- "André Masson’s automatic drawings came to characterize the process (...)", Anonymus (2012), Drawing Surrealism, Didactic, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, p.2 back to the text
- "A new vanguard emerged in the early 1940s, primarily in New York (...) The first generation of Abstract Expressionism flourished between 1943 and the mid-1950s. (...) In the wake of Abstract Expressionism, new generations of artists—both American and European—were profoundly marked by the breakthroughs made by the first generation, and went on to create their own important expressions based on, but not imitative of, those who forged the way" in Paul, Stella. “Abstract Expressionism.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm (October 2004) back to the text
- The term 'abstract expressionism' comes after an article by Robert Coates in 1946 talking about the painter Hans Hofmann. See Emily Warner, ‘The Painting’, in Pompeii 1959 by Hans Hofmann, Tate Research Publication, 2018, https://www.tate.org.uk/research/in-focus/pompeii/the-painting, accessed 21 July 2022. According to some scholars, Coates did not invent the term itself. See Rosenbaum, Roman, Toteva, Maia and Legaspi Ramirez, Eileen. "Abstract Expressionism." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. : Taylor and Francis, 2016. Date Accessed 21 Jul. 2022 https://www.rem.routledge.com/articles/overview/abstract-expressionism. doi:10.4324/9781135000356-REMO19-1 back to the text
- "the painterly application of the Abstract Expressionist gesture painters and the color emphasis of the field painters" in Elderfield J. (1986), Morris Louis, The Museum of Modern Art: Distributed by New York Graphic Society Books, Little, Brown and Co., New York back to the text
- "a special emphasis on the gesture made by the artist’s hand" in Street B. (2017), Abstract Expressionism, Exhibition in Focus, Royal Academy of Arts, London, p.1 back to the text
- "in which automatic gesture and improvisation gain free rein" in Stella (2004) back to the text
- Rosenberg H. (1952), The American Action Painters, ARTnews 52, December, New York City, pp. 22-23, 48-50 back to the text
- "an arena in which to act (...) What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event", in Idem, p.22 back to the text
- "Allan Kaprow's (...) essay "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock" was published in October 1958 issue of Artnews, only two years after the painter's tragic death. (...) Abstract Expressionism was well under way. Kaprow's text, however, was the first to address head-on the issue of its legacy, or rather that of its main protagonist", in Foster, H., Krauss, R. E., Bois, Y.-A., Buchloh, B. H. D., & Joselit, D. (2004). Art since 1900: Modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism, Thames & Hudson, New York, p.450 back to the text
- Kaprow A. (1958), The Legacy of Jackson Pollock, Art News vol. 57 no. 6 (October 1958): 24–26; 55–57 back to the text
- Kaprow declared it in an interview. See Roth M, Kaprow A. (1981), Oral history interview with Allan Kaprow, 1981 Feb. 5-18, Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C., 1981, p.16 back to the text
- "The term was coined by Allan Kaprow (...) Kaprow may have made the term, and the idea of blurring the boundary of art and life, popular but he was the first to admit that he wasn’t the only one or the first working in this way" in Beaven K., Performance Art The Happening, Happening, Art Terms, Art and Artists, Tate, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/h/happening/happening back to the text
- "With Pollock, however, the so-called “dance” of dripping, slashing, squeezing, daubing and whatever else went into a work, placed an almost absolute value upon a diaristic gesture." in Kaprow A (1958), The Legacy of Jackson Pollock, ARTNews, October reprinted in The Editors of ARTnews (2018), From the Archives: Allan Kaprow on the Legacy of Jackson Pollock, in 1958, https://www.artnews.com/art-news/retrospective/archives-allan-kaprow-legacy-jackson-pollock-1958-9768/ back to the text
- "For instance, the “Act of Painting.” In the last seventy-five years the random play of the hand upon the canvas or paper has become increasingly important. Strokes, smears, lines, dots, etc. became less and less attached to represented objects and existed more and more on their own, self-sufficiently" in ibidem back to the text
- "the idea of an “order” (...) obeyed the (...) esthetic (...) quite consciously" in ibidem back to the text
- "the so-called “dance” of dripping, slashing, squeezing, daubing and whatever else went into a work, placed an almost absolute value upon a diaristic gesture" in ibidem back to the text
- "But I used the words “almost absolute” when I spoke of the diaristic gesture as distinct from the process of judging each move upon the canvas. Pollock, interrupting his work, would judge his “acts” very shrewdly and with care for long periods of time before going into another “act.” He knew the difference between a good gesture and a bad one. This was his conscious artistry at work and it makes him a part of the traditional community of painters" in ibidem back to the text
- "Here the direct application of an automatic approach to the act makes it clear that not only is this not the old craft of painting, but it is perhaps bordering on ritual itself, which happens to use paint as one of its materials. (The European Surrealists may have used automatism as an ingredient but hardly can we say they really practiced it wholeheartedly (...) Surrealism attracted Pollock, as an attitude rather than as a collection of artistic examples.)" in ibidem back to the text
- "Then scale. Pollock’s choice of enormous sizes served many purposes (...) they ceased to become paintings and became environments" in ibidem back to the text
- "But what do we do now? (...) There are two alternatives. One is to continue in this vein. (...) The other is to give up the making of paintings entirely (...) Pollock, as I see him, left us at the point where we must become preoccupied with and even dazzled by the space and objects of our everyday life (...) a thousand other things which will be discovered by the present generation of artists. Not only will these bold creators show us, as if for the first time, the world we have always had about us, but ignored, but they will disclose entirely unheard of happenings and events (...)" in ibidem back to the text
- "(...) antinarrative theatrical pieces (...) staged in studios, galleries, and offbeat locations, usually with direct audience involvement" in Happening, Collection Online, Movements, Guggenheim, https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/movement/happenings back to the text
- "The name was first used by the American artist Allan Kaprow in the title of his 1959 work 18 Happenings in 6 Parts which took place on six days, 4–10 October 1959 at the Reuben Gallery, New York" in Happening, Art Terms, Art and Artists, Tate, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/h/happening back to the text
- "Kaprow’s happenings are often cited as a major influence on the development of performance art as a respected artistic medium", in Suarez J. (2015), How Allan Kaprow Helped Create “Happenings”, Guggenheim Blogs, Guggenheim, https://www.guggenheim.org/blogs/findings/how-allan-kaprow-helped-create-happenings back to the text
- "Performance art arose in the early 1970s as a general term for a multitude of activities" in Wainwright, L. S. (2008). performance art. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/art/performance-art back to the text
- Performance, Art Terms, MoMA, https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/performance back to the text
- "By the early 1970s performance had evolved into a primary rather than adjunct means of expression for artists to convey their dissatisfaction with the commercial gallery system and the commodification of the art object. By eliminating the object, performance was thought to facilitate direct communication between artist and viewer" in Performance, Movements, Collection Online, Guggenheim, https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/movement/performance back to the text
- "In the post-war period performance became aligned with conceptual art, because of its often immaterial nature" in Performance art, Art Term, Art and Artists, Tate, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/performance-art back to the text
- The term 'concept art' was coined by Henry Flynt in 1961 and released under a publication in 1963. See Flynt H. (1963), Essay: Concept Art (Provisional Version), in Brecht G. et al. (1963), An Anthology of Chance Operations, published by La Monte Young & Jackson Mac Low, New York, pp. 30-34. ""Concept art" is first of all an art of which the material is "concepts," as the material of for ex. music is sound. Since "concepts" are closely bound up with language, concept art is a kind of art of which the material is language. That is, unlike for ex. a work of music, in which the music proper (as opposed to notation, analysis, a.s.f.) is just sound, concept art proper will involve language" in Flynt H. (1963), p.31 back to the text
- LeWitt S. (1967), Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, Artforum, 5:10 (Summer 1967), pp. 79–84 back to the text
- "In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- Expressionism, Art Terms, MoMA, https://www.moma.org/collection/terms/expressionism back to the text
- "This eliminates the arbitrary, the capricious, and the subjective as much as possible", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "It is only the expectation of an emotional kick, to which one conditioned to expressionist art is accustomed, that would deter the viewer from perceiving this art", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- Ibidem back to the text
- "There is no reason to suppose, however, that the conceptual artist is out to bore the viewer", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "Conceptual art is not necessarily logical", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "Ideas are discovered by intuition", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "it is not an illustration of any system of philosophy", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "The philosophy of the work is implicit in the work", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 80 back to the text
- "to engage the mind of the viewer rather than his eye or emotions", in LeWitt S. (1967), p. 83 back to the text
- Chandler J., Lippard, L. (1986), The Dematerialization of Art, Art international, 12:2 (February 1968), pp. 31-36 reprinted in Lippard, L.R. (1971). Changing: essays in art criticism, Dutton, New York back to the text
- See Proceedings of the 2nd International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Image and Imagination: IMG 2019. Germany, Springer International Publishing, 2020., p. 415, note 2 back to the text
- The expression 'dematerialization of art' appears in Chandler, Lippard (1986) back to the text
- "During the 1960's, the anti-intellectual, emotional/intuitive process of art-making characteristic of the last two decades have begun to give away to an ultra-conceptual art that emphasizes the thinking process almost exclusively" in Lippard, L.R. (1971), p.255 back to the text
- "Such a trend appears to be provoking a profound dematerialization of art, especially of art as object, and if it continues to prevail, it may result in the object's becoming wholly obsolete" in Lippard, L.R. (1971), p.255 back to the text
- "The visual arts at the moment seem to hover at a crossroad that may well turn out to be two roads to one place, though they appear to have come from two sources: art as idea and art as action. In the first case, matter id denied, as sensation has been converted into concept; in the second case, matter has been transformed into energy and time-motion" in Lippard, L.R. (1971), p.255 back to the text
- "The artist as thinker (...) the artist as maker (...)" in Lippard, L.R. (1971), p.270 back to the text
- "Of course the use of the object of art as a vehicle for ideas is nothing new. In the course of art history it was only in the late nineteenth century tha an alternative was offered by the proposal that art is strictly "retinal" or sensuous in effect - a proposition that has come down to us as the formal or modernist mainstream" in Lippard, L.R. (1971), pp.272-273. The word "retinal", according to the note in the text, comes after Duchamp's interview: "(...) painting should not be only retinal or visual; it should have to do with the gray matter of our understanding, not alone the purely visual" in Nelson J. (editor) (1958), Wisdom. Conversations With the Elder Wise Men of Our Day, Marcel Duchamp interviewed by James Johnson Sweeney, W. W. Norton & Company Inc, New York back to the text
- Osborne, P. (2004), ART BEYOND AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL CRITICISM, ART HISTORY AND CONTEMPORARY ART. Art History, 27: 651-670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0141-6790.2004.00442.x back to the text
- Osborne P. (2013), Anywhere or Not at All: Philosophy of Contemporary Art, Verso, London back to the text
- "All art requires some form of materialization; that is to say, aesthetic ‒ felt, spazio-temporal ‒ presentation" in Osborne P. (2013), p.48 back to the text
- "the idea of a 'purely' conceptual art associated for a brief period (1968-1972) with Joseph Kosuth in the US and the Art & Language in Britain" in Idem pp. 48-49 back to the text
- "It was the ironic historical achievement of the strong programme of 'analytical' or 'pure' conceptual art to have demonstrated the ineliminability of the aesthetic as a necessity, though radically insufficient, component of the artwork through the failure of its attempt at its elimination" in Idem p.49 back to the text
- "All art requires some form of materialization" in Idem p.48 back to the text
- "conceptual art was able to bring once again to light, in a more decisive way, the necessary conceptuality of the work which had been buried by the aesthetic ideology of the formalist modernism (...) The aesthetic concept of art mistakes one of art's many conditions for the whole." in Idem p.49 back to the text
- "Art's necessary conceptuality. (Art is constituted by concepts, their relations and their instantiation in practices of discrimination: art/non-art.)" in Idem p.48 back to the text
- "artists throughout the ages striven to capture the enduring poetry and power of what we call reality" in Moxey K. (2009), Mimesis and Iconoclasm, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8365.2008.00648.x, ART HISTORY . ISSN 0141–6790 . VOL 32 NO 1 . FEBRUARY 2009 pp 52-77, p.52 back to the text
- "presentational power" in Idem, p.54 back to the text
- "to create an entirely new experience" in Ibidem back to the text
- "a substitute for the ‘real’ thing" in Ibidem back to the text